Securing your network services with Fail2ban


First off, the title may be a bit misleading: this is just one step towards securing the network services provided by your Linux server. Proper server hardening involves a lot more than that; however, this is an important step, and since it's easy to implement, there's no excuse to not use it.

In this article, I'll show you:

  • The key concepts of Fail2ban.
  • How to install Fail2ban and enable jails to secure some network services.
  • Create a custom Fail2ban filter and jail to secure a VNC server

Key concepts of Fail2ban

Fail2ban can be considered a kind of intrusion detection system (IDS), which are devices or softwares dedicated to monitor a network for malicious activity, triggering automatic actions in case of a match. These actions can range from a simple alert to blocking the malicious traffic from reaching the network, or even a custom, more complex chain of events configured by the security specialist.

IDSes differ on how they analyze activity, which detection methods they use, and how they prevent the intrusion. Fail2ban works the following way:

  1. Starts a daemon on the server where the network services are to be secured.
  2. The daemon scans log files for specific attack patterns.
  3. If a match is found, it blocks the originating IP address, usually using firewall rules, for a certain time.

Fail2ban comes out-of-the-box with several pre-configured filters, designed to properly identify attack patterns on log files. One common example would be SSH brute-force password attacks. These filters can be used in jails, which are configuration blocks that specify:

  1. The network service to monitor.
  2. Which filter to apply to that service.
  3. Which log file to scan.
  4. Which action to perform on a match.
  5. Other related options, such as ban time, number of failures etc.

For example, this is a typical Fail2ban jail block that secures an SSH server against brute-force password attacks, banning the originating IP address for 600 seconds, after 3 authentication failures:
port = ssh
logpath = %(sshd_log)s
filter = %(__name__)s
bantime = 600
maxretry = 3
enabled = true
Some of the options, such as log paths and filter definitions, will be explored later.

On a Linux server, Fail2ban will, by default, use the IPTables firewall to block attackers. Once the daemon is started, it will create several chains and input rules according to the enabled jails. For instance, if we enable the sshd jail, we'll see something like this:
root@server:~# iptables -L -n -v
Chain INPUT (policy ACCEPT 4828 packets, 2188K bytes)
 pkts bytes target     prot opt in     out     source               destination
34709 6454K f2b-sshd   tcp  --  *      *              multiport dports 22
Chain f2b-sshd (1 references)
 pkts bytes target     prot opt in     out     source               destination
28165 5884K RETURN     all  --  *      *  
But, of course, it can take several other actions; you can even create your own! One of the main strengths of Fail2ban, in my opinion, is the possibility to fully customize it.

Installing, configuring and enabling Fail2ban

Most Linux distributions include Fail2ban in their standard repositories, so it's just a matter of using its package installer (note: on RHEL/CentOS, you need to add the EPEL repository):
root@debian:~# apt-get install fail2ban -y
root@rhel:~# yum install epel-release -y; yum install fail2ban-firewalld -y
Once the package is installed, you'll see a directory structure similar to this under /etc/fail2ban, the default configuration location:
root@server:~# ls -F /etc/fail2ban/
action.d/  fail2ban.conf  fail2ban.d/  filter.d/  jail.conf  jail.d/  paths-common.conf  paths-debian.conf

  • action.d: directory with files defining the several actions that Fail2ban can take. You can create a custom action there; take a look at some of the simpler actions for reference.
  • fail2ban.conf: main configuration file, defining some general parameters of Fail2ban. Usually it's not recommended to edit this file, putting your customizations in a fail2ban.local file or under fail2ban.d.
  • fail2ban.d: directory where you can put configuration files to customize Fail2ban's main parameters.
  • filter.d: contains files which define the several filters that can be used. Usually the files specify regular expressions that will match certain patterns in log files. You can create a custom filter there; take a look at some of the simpler filters for reference.
  • jail.conf: main file with the default jail definitions. You shouldn't modify this file: place your customizations in a jail.local file, or under jail.d.
  • jail.d: contains custom jail definitions.
  • paths-common.conf and paths-debian.conf: specify the default file paths for the operating system, such as log file locations.

If you read this carefully, you probably realized that, if the provided default actions, filters and paths are enough, you just need to customize the jails to have a fully-functioning Fail2ban IDS running.

Take a look at the jail.conf file: you must have noticed that all the jails are in a disabled state by default; it makes perfect sense, since having them all enabled by default would waste a lot of resources. Our task will be, then, to customize the settings and enable the jails we want, but remember: in a separate jail.local file or in a new file under jail.d. I'll take the latter approach, creating a new file under jail.d with the settings that differ from the base configuration:
root@server:~# vi /etc/fail2ban/jail.d/server.conf

bantime = 300
findtime = 120
maxretry = 3
destemail =
sender = root@server
mta = sendmail

enabled = true
The several options are usually explained in the jail.conf base configuration file, and also in the manpages, but I'll briefly explain what I customized here:

  • [DEFAULT]: section that contains parameters applied to all the jails.
  • bantime, findtime, maxretry: block the attacking IP address for 300 seconds, if it matches a filter 3 times in 120 seconds.
  • destemail, sender, mta: send an e-mail to, from root@server, using Sendmail as the MTA.
  • [sshd]: section that contains custom parameters for the SSHD jail.
  • enabled = true: since I don't want to customize anything else than what's already defined in jail.conf, I'll just enable this jail.

Easy, right? Now we just need to enable the Fail2ban service and start it:
root@server:~# systemctl enable fail2ban
root@server:~# systemctl start fail2ban
It should start without errors. Let's check if it's running and if the IPTables chains have been created:
root@server:~# ps aux | grep fail2ban
root      1389  0.0  1.5 849772 15804 ?        Sl   Feb23   5:43 /usr/bin/python3 /usr/bin/fail2ban-server -s /var/run/fail2ban/fail2ban.sock -p /var/run/fail2ban/ -x -b

root@server:~# iptables -L -n -v | grep f2b
42574 7194K f2b-sshd   tcp  --  *      *              multiport dports 22
Chain f2b-sshd (1 references)

root@server:~# fail2ban-client status
|- Number of jail: 1
`- Jail list: sshd
There you go, your SSH service is now protected against brute-force password attacks with Fail2ban!

Creating a custom Fail2ban filter and jail

While Fail2ban comes out-of-the-box with several pre-defined actions, filters and jails, sometimes you need to protect a network service that isn't covered, and/or you need to define a custom action, tweak a filter's regular expression to better match specific scenarios etc.

For the sake of learning a little about this kind of customization, I'll teach you how to create a basic filter and jail to protect a VNC server, TightVNC. "Why not protect TigerVNC, the one you used on your previous article?" Well, because TigerVNC has built-in brute-force protection! :)

Reference for the TightVNC filter and jail:

  • Create a custom filter that will match strings in the log file which indicate an authentication failure (not really a complex regex in this case, right?):
root@server:~# vi /etc/fail2ban/filter.d/tightvnc-auth.conf

failregex = authentication failed from <HOST>
ignoreregex =
  • Create a custom jail configuration file for it. I'll just put the most relevant options (enable the jail, specify the filter, and tell the log file to scan):
root@server:~# vi /etc/fail2ban/jail.d/tightvnc-auth.conf

enabled = true
filter = tighvnc-auth
logpath = /home/user/.vnc/server:1.log
  • Restart the fail2ban service and confirm the new jail is up and running, as taught in the previous section.
Not really complicated, right? This was just a basic example, to give you a kickoff for more advanced customizations.


As explained in the beginning, this is just one step towards fully securing your server and network services. But since it's an easy and straightforward IDS that is free and available on most modern Linux distributions, I strongly recommend it's usage. If you ever deployed a Linux server on the cloud, you should have noticed how almost immediately it becomes a target for brute-force attacks, specially the SSH service, which is almost ubiquitous on Linux servers.

While apparently a simple tool, Fail2ban's true strenght is on its customization possibilities. You can basically protect any network service that creates plain-text log files, and take almost any action on a match, including feeding more complex network security elements.

Many companies usually neglect server security, focusing only on border security or dedicated network security elements. This is not ideal, as a vulnerable server can be open to exploits that bypass these elements. Everything must be taken into account to proper secure your IT environment.